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Complete Track and Field Glossary of Terms

Definitions will be added as we get questions on certain terms.

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Glossary of Terms :

Acceleration – rate of change of velocity

Anaerobic – without oxygen

Annual Plan – yearly training program (divided into phases)

Backside Mechanics – in sprinting, movements occurring behind the center of mass

Center of Mass (COM) – the point on a body where forces are applied

Competition Period – grouping of event specific training for competition

Competition Period – grouping of event specific training for competition

Endurance – a period of time that an intensity can be held for

Force – mass times acceleration

Frontside Mechanics – in sprinting, movement occuring in front of the center of mass

General Preparation – phase containing general exercises to build a foundation

Hypertrophy – to increase size

Intensity – an amount or quality of effort

Macrocycle – a training period (or season) consisting of the 3 periods (Preparatory, Competitive and Transition)

Main Competition Phase – the point where you schedule your peak for, your most important meets

Maximum Velocity – top speed

Mesocycle – a training period of 2-6 microcycles

Microcycle – a weekly trainig program

Overtraining – when volume and intensity exceeds recovery capacity

Peaking – tapering for a major or championship event

Period – Group of phases that makes up the Prepatory, Competitive, Transition

Periodization – structure of a continuous training plan

Phase – stage of training, sub-periods: General, Specific Preparatory, Pre-competition, Competitive, Transition

Power – rate of work. Amont of work produced in a certain amount of time (Force x Velocity)

Pre-competition – phase in which event specific training objectives are introduced

Preparation Phase – “training to train”, building a base

Progressive Overload – a higher training load then a body is use to, steadily increasing load

Repetition – number of intervals in a set

Session – individual workouts

Special Preparation – after general preparation, where to training focus stays as building a foundation but also moves towards specific training

Speed – the rate of motion. Distance traveled divided by the time of travel

Speed Endurance – any interval or run where an athlete must maintain near top speeds for a lengthened period of time. Generally speaking, these runs last 8-20 seconds so distance will vary depending on the capabilities of the athlete

Strength – force a muscle(s) produces against a resistance

Torque – measurement of force to produce a rotation about an axis

Training Age – number of years trainig for a particular event

Transition Period – recovery time in between macrocycles

Unit – different biomotor elements of training that makes up a training session

Velocity – rate of change of displacement in a specified direction

Volume – quantity of work performed